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Updated November 25, 2021
  The snowball effect

Image : Avalanche ou cascade de bifurcations.
- For lack of a nail the iron was lost,
- For lack of a shoe the horse was lost,
- For lack of a horse the rider was lost,
- For lack of a rider the battle was lost,
- For lack of a battle the kingdom was lost,
and all this for lack of a horseshoe nail!
credit almanac by Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

  Thermodynamics of the sandpile

Image: The Abelian sandpile model is the most popular name of the original Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model. The BTW model was the first discovered example of a dynamic system exhibiting self-organizing criticality. It was featured by Per Bak, Chao Tang, and Kurt Wiesenfeld in a 1987 article.

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