The Sun is a star, i.e. a big ball of glowing gas in the smooth and uniform appearance whose surface temperature is 5778 K. In fact the Sun is blue-green because the temperature of 5778 K corresponds to the blue-green color in the spectrum of black body.
But in reality the sun is a huge pot of bubbling gases consisting of hydrogen and helium.
Our central thermonuclear derives its energy from nuclear fusion reactions that turn in its nucleus, at a temperature of 15 million degrees, hydrogen into helium, from 4.57 billion years.
Consumption i.e. the loss of mass of the Sun is 4 million tons of hydrogen per second, because it converts 564 million tons of hydrogen into 560 million tons of helium. At the center of the thermonuclear power plant, radioactive substances, tritium ions and beryllium-7, circulate freely.
In the solar system, the Sun has captured 99.86% of the total mass of dust and gas of the primordial nebula.
This picture was taken in H-alpha (specific emission line of hydrogen atom), a variety of specific red hydrogen, then reversed resulting in the blue visible on the image below cons. H-alpha can reveal details of the solar chromosphere, including spicules which bristle surface. The spicules are thin tubes of magnetically confined hot gas. The power source of our star is generated by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium in its center.
On the Sun's image following cons, no active region is visible that day, but we notice small bumps on the sides, upper left. In solar physics, the spicules were discovered in 1877 by Father Angelo Secchi of the Vatican Observatory in Rome.
The spicules live about 5 to 10 minutes in the sun's surface.
Image: This picture was taken in October 2009 in H-alpha, red variety of specific hydrogen, then reversed resulting in the blue visible on the image below cons.
Credit & Copyright: Alan Friedman (Averted Imagination)
The prominences of the Sun are solar filaments of matter projected above its surface and characterizing the activity of the Sun. This activity seems to vary by up to another within a cycle.
In absolute terms, solar activity is regulated by a cycle of an average period of 11.2 years but the duration can vary between 8 and 15 years.
Eruptive prominences of the sun are huge geysers of solar material that take place in the chromosphere and soar to hundreds of thousands of miles in space.
Soho Space Satellite Launched in 1995, the program Soho contributes to international scientific programs in the study of Earth-Sun relationship. Soho is conducted in collaboration with NASA, in charge of launching the satellite, its control and the implementation of several instruments. The satellite was built in Toulouse by a European industrial consortium led by Astrium, the instruments were provided by the scientific community. More than 500 researchers from 20 different countries are involved in this program. La France has designed instruments EIT Swan and Golf, and has greatly contributed to the realization of experiments Sumer, CDS and Lasco. Although not designed for this purpose, Soho became the discoverer of comets the most prolific in the history of astronomy. detected complex gas streams flowing in the solar surface but also shock waves and explosions standing in the solar atmosphere.
With this success, the 1996 mission, for an initial term of 2 years, was extended until 2007 to allow the observatory to study an entire solar cycle.
Since January 30, 2009, the most beautiful images of solar prominences, we reach the probe Russian Koronas-Photon and its telescope TESIS.
The protuberances are the manifestation of solar magnetic phenomena. They are produced by the activity of the core that creates a huge magnetic field in the center of the Sun.
The rotation of the nucleus, faster at the equator than at the poles creates field lines that 'kink' and form loops on the outer layer.
This activity also involves a part of the solar material in the form of plasma composed of 73% hydrogen and 25% helium. This plasma field follows the lines of magnetic fields and accelerates its course by moving closer to the sun outside.
These waves form spicules, which are solid tubes filled with hot gas moving at 80 000 km per hour and animating the chromosphere and the Sun.
These solar supersonic jets are actually made of a magnetic field of a transparent relatively small diameter of only 500 km.
Sequenced images have recently shown that spicules last about five minutes, before falling on the solar surface.
These continuous streams of charged particles surround the Earth and can cause malfunctions on space satellites.
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Image : This image of the Sun in ultraviolet, was taken by the space probe with the instrument SOHO EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope). The wavelength is 171 angstroms. credits: ESA/NASA