Particles in the biochemical life
The radiative era...
| ||Automatic translation|| ||Category: evolution|
Updated June 01, 2013
The footnotes of history of the evolution towards the life: the tiny world and the macroscopic world are combined in the evolution of the Universe, because the infinitesimal generated the infinitely big, the universe sprang of almost nothing.
At the vague beginning, an energy creates billions of billion billion particles and virtual antiparticles, which are going to leave the opaque world of the shadows, to appear in a transparent real world.
quarks Elementary particle loaded with reacting to the strong nuclear energy. Protons and neutrons consist each of three quarks discovered by an American physicist Murray Gell-Mann. , electrons This elementary particle constituting universal of the mater, has a load e=1,59 x 10-19 coulomb and a mass m=9 x 10-28 grams. A electron volt, eV = 1,602 x 10-19 joules. , neutrinos Subject neutral particle only in the weak nuclear strength. Produced in large number in the first moments of the universe and in lesser number in the heart of stars and in supernovae. and their antiparticles in the free state, are going to appear from the space.
Particles and their antiparticles are going to produce the light, a lot of light, it is the radiative era where the night does not exist.
The energy of the strong nuclear strength creates the mater, by associating quarks three by three, it is the period of the hadrons that engenders protons and neutrons. Quarks lose their freedom.
Image: 10 atom meter, it is the distance in which we can see quark.
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The material era...
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As soon as the gravitational strength was able to get over it, 300000 years after the radiative era, we assist the birth of the galaxies, millions of galaxies. In the cosmic desert, these oases are going to escape the continual cooling. The radiative era has just engendered the material era. It is in these irregularities of density that are the galaxies which the walking towards the complexity is going to take back.
The radiation creates the mater, it is the material era.
The creation of the nuclei of hydrogen and helium is going to be made in a soup of hadrons Because they owe their existence to the strong nuclear strength, the proton, the neutron and their antiparticles are collectively appointed under the name of hadrons, which in Greek means [fort]. , of leptons Elementary particle on which the strong nuclear strength has no influence. The electron, the positron, the neutrino are indicated under the name of lepton, which in Greek means [weak]. and of photons. Elementary particle of the radiation, without mass, which moves in the biggest possible speed, in km/s 300000. According to the energy which it carries, the particle can be, in order of lessening energy, a photon gamma, X, ultraviolet, visible, infrared or radio.
The galaxies are not rather dense to combine the nuclei of hydrogen and helium in other heavier nuclei. In the galaxies, thanks to the gravity, numerous small clouds of hydrogen and helium are going to contract, to collapse and to reach big temperatures.
Nuclear reactions are going to start in these gaseous clouds, it is the birth of stars. When the star will have converted its hydrogen in helium, it is again going to collapse and to reach even bigger temperatures. In hundreds of million degrees the nuclei of helium are going to be able to merge to give nuclei of carbon.
Image: In 14 billion years light of distance, every small point is a super heap of galaxies.
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The elements of the stellar cooking...
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In more and more short cycles stars are so going to make more and more heavy elements and in gigantic explosions, they will throw in the interstellar space, the germs of the future atoms. All the products of the stellar cooking, the electrons, the nuclei of the chemical elements, are in the massive stars.
It remains to unite nuclei with electrons to reach the following stage towards the complexity, which is the construction of atoms. It can come true only through the electromagnetic strength and certainly not in the internal of the stars where the temperature is too much brought up so that atoms can survive it.
Dusts of a thousandth of millimeter, made by silicon, by oxygen, by magnesium and by iron, fill the interstellar space. It is in these fertile lands that the nuclei of the heavy elements are going to join and to unite according to combinations always more complex, atoms and molecules are going to appear.
Naturally, there are many molecules of hydrogen, but we also find of the carbon monoxide (CO), the water (H2O, of methane (CH4), some ammonia (NH3).
Moreover this jazz quartet of atoms which already makes its appearance: the carbon ( C ), the hydrogen ( H ), the oxygen ( O ), the nitrogen ( N ) composes 99 % of our body.
Image: 10-14 meters or 10 fermi, it is the distance in which we can see the nucleus of an atom. Towards the end of the 19th century, we discovered that the atom is not an element of inseparable mater. The proton is a nucleon, as the neutron, and enters the composition of all the atomic nuclei.
On the way towards the complexity...
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The nature pursues its progress towards the complexity, molecules of some tens of atoms are not enough for him. In a small part lost by the Milky Way, 10 billion years after Big Bang, a cloud of dust contracts, the nuclear reactions start, the gaseous cloud ignites, a star appears: the Sun.
At the time of the contraction, specks of dust, turn around the center, many are going to be sucked up, few escape from it and begin to turn around the sun in formation.
Dusts agglutinate in rings around the celestial body, the biggest attractive the smallest and more and more their masses is going to grow, 1 gram, 1 kilogram, 1 ton, billions of tons. They will group together as much as they will can it.
The mater of the solar rings concentrates in planets and the moons which at random meetings go either crash on the planet or be prisoner on an orbit. This period of intense bombardment is going to last some hundreds of million years.
Planets cool, the surface of the Earth is only an ocean of incandescent lava which little by little is going to solidify by ejecting in its atmosphere of big quantities of gas, contained in the liquid rock.
This atmosphere is a mixture of hydrogen (H), of ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
That of water...
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The cooling continues, the water of the primitive atmosphere condenses, diluvian rains beat down and flood the Earth on 3/4 of its surface.
The radiative energy of the young sun are going to strike the molecules of the atmosphere, which are going to join in multiple combinations. Amino acids of around thirty atoms appear and are going to dissolve in the ocean.
Much denser than the ground atmosphere, the water is the place of the meetings and the combinations par excellence, because it protects its hosts of the harmful thunderstorms of the Sun. Amino acids are going to continue to assemble in long chains and hundreds of million years later, proteins appear. A stage furthermore is crossed towards the complexity.
Of assembly in assembly, proteins are going to form muddled helixes, to create the molecule of DNA, real genetic bank for the human beings.
Then it is the arrival of the DNA, this magnificent molecule that is going to pass on the information of past towards the future.
Cells containing millions of molecules of DNA are born and the monocellular organisms teem in the ocean and will wait patiently for the occasion to cross another stage towards the complexity.
Image: Diluvian rains which flood the Earth.
And much more late...
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3 billion years later, the expected occasion is and the multicellular organisms there appear.
The complexity is then going to accelerate its walking forward, still 100 million years to see shells, and shellfishes. Still 100 million years and fishes appear.
It is the period when the Earth becomes the paradise of plants and forests. The atmosphere is going to be there considerably modified, because the photosynthesis is going to generate the oxygen and the ozone, the defenders of the harmful beams of the sun.
The alive bodies do not any more need to stay under cover in the ocean, the life is going to tempt and to manage to come out of the water to invade lands.
There is 200 million years, birds and the reptiles make their appearance, 50 million years later, dinosaurs.
There is 100 million years, mammals invade the earth. There is 20 million years it is the monkeys who show their teeth and homo sapiens make their entrance on the ground scene. It will have been necessary for the universe, to invent galaxies, stars, planets, oceans and atmospheres, under heavens always more convenient to reach the observable complexity today.
From the space, by way of the civilized man, where is the summit of this fervent complexity, knowing that it stays in the germs of the life, the eternity?
Image: The pyramid of the complexity goes towards the rarefaction. More we go towards the complexity and less we find it in the universe.
bio molecules ou proteins